Les 200 galÓxies mÚs brillants

Aquesta llista inclou les 200 galÓxies mÚs brillants d'acord amb el "Third Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies". Totes tenen una lluminositat superior a la de magnitud 11,24. Aquestes galÓxies estan a l'interior i al voltant del Superc˙mul de Virgo i algunes estan a a menys de100 milions d'anys-llum de distÓncia.

     1           2        3      4     5     6      7     8     9   10     11     12       13
  Nom de la     Coordenades    Coordenades  Tipus  Mag  Gran. Vist Gran.  Dist.  Dist.   Const.
  GalÓxia       equatorials    supergalÓct.        Blau mins.      m.a-l  m.a-l  m.a-l
                RA       Dec     L░    B░
WLM           00 01.9  -15 27  277.8  +8.1  Irr   11.03   11   3/4   10    3.0    P        Cet
NGC   55      00 15.1  -39 13  256.2  -2.4  SBm    8.42   32  edge   60    6.5    N        Scl
NGC  134      00 30.4  -33 15  262.9  -3.6  Sbc   11.23    9   1/4  150   60      V        Scl
NGC  147      00 33.2  +48 30  343.3 +15.3  E     10.47   13   3/4   10    2.4    P        Cas
NGC  157      00 34.8  -08 24  287.0  +2.5  Sbc   11.00    4   3/4   85   70      V        Cet
NGC  185      00 39.0  +48 20  343.3 +14.3  E     10.10   12  full    5    2.0    P        Cas
NGC  205 M110 00 40.4  +41 41  336.5 +13.1  E      8.92   22   3/4   15    2.7    PN       And
NGC  221 M32  00 42.7  +40 52  335.8 +12.5  E      9.03    9  full    5    2.6    NS       And
NGC  224 M31  00 42.7  +41 16  336.2 +12.6  Sb     4.36  190   1/2  145    2.6    CPNGS    And
NGC  247      00 47.1  -20 46  275.9  -3.7  Scd    9.67   21   1/4   50    8.1    P        Cet
NGC  253      00 47.6  -25 17  271.6  -5.0  SBc    8.04   28   1/4  105   13      P        Scl
SMC           00 52.6  -72 48  224.3 -14.8  SBm    2.70  315  full   20    0.21   CN       Tuc
NGC  300      00 54.9  -37 41  259.8  -9.5  Scd    8.72   22  full   45    6.8    CN       Scl
Sculptor      01 00.2  -33 43  264.0  -9.7  Irr   10.50   40  full    5    0.26   P        Scl
IC  1613      01 04.8  +02 07  299.2  -1.8  Irr    9.88   16  full   10    2.4    CP       Cet
NGC  404      01 09.4  +35 43  331.9  +6.3  S0    11.21    3  full   10   11      S        And
NGC  488      01 21.8  +05 15  303.3  -5.0  Sb    11.15    5  full  145   95      V        Psc
NGC  598 M33  01 33.8  +30 40  328.5  -0.1  Sc     6.27   71   3/4   60    2.8    CP       Tri
NGC  613      01 34.3  -29 25  269.7 -16.0  SBbc  10.73    5   1/2   90   55      V        Scl
NGC  628 M74  01 36.7  +15 47  314.5  -5.4  Sc     9.95   10  full   75   24      P        Psc
NGC  720      01 53.0  -13 44  286.6 -17.4  E     11.16    5   3/4  120   90      S        Cet
NGC  772      01 59.3  +19 00  319.4  -9.4  Sb    11.09    7  full  220  105      V        Ari
NGC  891      02 22.6  +42 21  343.0  -4.8  Sb    10.81   13  edge  125   32      NS       And
NGC  908      02 23.1  -21 14  280.1 -25.8  Sc    10.83    6   1/2  105   60      V        Cet
NGC  925      02 27.3  +33 35  335.5  -9.5  SBcd  10.69   10   3/4   90   30      C        Tri
NGC  936      02 27.6  -01 09  301.9 -22.6  S0    11.12    5  full  100   75      S        Cet
Fornax        02 40.0  -34 27  265.4 -30.3  Irr    9.04   17  full    5    0.45   P        For
NGC 1023      02 40.4  +39 04  341.6  -9.3  S0    10.35    9   1/2   90   36      NS       Per
NGC 1068 M77  02 42.7  -00 01  304.3 -25.8  Sb     9.61    7  full   95   45      V        Cet
NGC 1097      02 46.3  -30 16  270.2 -31.6  SBb   10.23    9  full  120   45      V        For
NGC 1232      03 09.8  -20 35  282.2 -36.5  Sc    10.52    7  full  140   65      V        Eri
NGC 1291      03 17.3  -41 06  256.5 -36.9  SBa    9.39   10  full   85   30      V        Eri
NGC 1313      03 18.3  -66 30  228.0 -28.2  SBcd   9.20    9  full   35   14      P        Ret
NGC 1300      03 19.7  -19 25  283.9 -38.7  SBbc  11.11    6   3/4  110   60      V        Eri
NGC 1316      03 22.7  -37 12  261.0 -38.6  S0     9.42   12   3/4  205   59      NS       For
NGC 1350      03 31.1  -33 38  265.3 -40.9  SBab  11.16    5   1/2   85   55      V        For
NGC 1365      03 33.6  -36 08  261.9 -41.0  SBb   10.32   11  full  195   59      C        For
NGC 1380      03 36.4  -34 59  263.3 -41.8  S0    10.87    5   1/2   85   61      GS       For
NGC 1399      03 38.5  -35 27  262.5 -42.1  E     10.55    7  full  120   60      NGS      For
NGC 1395      03 38.5  -23 02  279.4 -43.3  E     10.55    6  full  140   81      S        Eri
NGC 1404      03 38.9  -35 36  262.3 -42.1  E     10.97    3  full   60   60      NGS      For
NGC 1398      03 38.9  -26 20  274.9 -43.3  SBab  10.57    7   3/4  115   55      V        For
NGC 1407      03 40.2  -18 35  285.5 -43.5  E     10.70    5  full  125   94      S        Eri
NGC 1433      03 42.0  -47 13  247.4 -39.3  SBab  10.70    6  full   75   40      V        Hor
IC   342      03 46.8  +68 06   10.6  +0.4  Sc     9.10   21  full   40    8.1    P        Cam
NGC 1512      04 03.9  -43 21  250.2 -44.4  SBa   11.13    9  full   80   30      V        Hor
NGC 1532      04 12.1  -32 52  263.9 -49.4  SBb   10.65   13  edge  165   45      V        Eri
NGC 1549      04 15.8  -55 36  234.6 -39.9  E     10.72    5  full   90   64      S        Dor
NGC 1553      04 16.2  -55 47  234.3 -39.8  S0    10.28    4   3/4   80   61      S        Dor
NGC 1559      04 17.6  -62 47  227.3 -35.5  SBc   11.00    3   1/2   45   45      V        Ret
NGC 1566      04 20.0  -54 56  234.8 -40.8  Sbc   10.33    8  full  110   45      V        Dor
NGC 1672      04 45.7  -59 15  227.5 -40.4  SBb   10.28    7  full   85   45      V        Dor
NGC 1792      05 05.3  -37 59  248.5 -57.2  Sbc   10.87    5   1/2   70   45      V        Col
NGC 1808      05 07.7  -37 31  248.7 -57.8  Sa    10.74    6   1/2   65   35      V        Col
LMC           05 23.6  -69 45  215.8 -34.1  SBm    0.91  645  full   30    0.17   CPN      Dor
NGC 2280      06 44.8  -27 38  217.2 -77.8  Sc    10.90    6   1/2  140   75      V        CMa
NGC 2336      07 27.1  +80 11   27.8  +6.0  SBbc  11.05    7   1/2  225  110      V        Cam
NGC 2403      07 36.9  +65 36   30.8  -8.3  Sc     8.93   22   3/4   70   11      CN       Cam
UGC 4305      08 19.1  +70 43   33.3  -2.4  Irr   11.10    8   3/4   30   12      P        UMa
NGC 2613      08 33.4  -22 58  137.7 -65.7  Sb    11.16    7   1/4  150   70      V        Pyx
NGC 2683      08 52.7  +33 25   55.9 -33.4  Sb    10.64    9   1/4   80   30      P        Lyn
NGC 2681      08 53.6  +51 19   45.4 -18.2  Sa    11.09    4  full   60   56      S        UMa
NGC 2655      08 55.6  +78 13   32.4  +5.5  Sa    10.96    5  full  105   75      V        Cam
NGC 2775      09 10.3  +07 02   84.8 -49.5  Sab   11.03    4  full   70   55      V        Cnc
NGC 2768      09 11.6  +60 02   43.0  -9.4  E     10.84    8   1/2  175   73      S        UMa
NGC 2835      09 17.9  -22 21  133.2 -55.7  SBc   11.01    7  full   65   35      V        Hya
NGC 2841      09 22.0  +50 59   49.5 -16.0  Sb    10.09    8   1/2   95   40      C        UMa
NGC 2903      09 32.2  +21 30   73.5 -36.4  Sbc    9.68   13   1/2  110   30      P        Leo
NGC 2997      09 45.7  -31 11  146.0 -48.2  Sc    10.06    9  full  115   45      V        Ant
NGC 2976      09 47.3  +67 55   41.3  -0.8  Sc    10.82    6   1/2   25   15      P        UMa
NGC 2985      09 50.3  +72 17   38.6  +2.7  Sab   11.18    5  full  100   75      V        UMa
NGC 3031 M81  09 55.6  +69 04   41.1  +0.6  Sab    7.89   27   3/4   95   12      CNS      UMa
NGC 3034 M82  09 55.9  +69 41   40.7  +1.1  Irr    9.30   11   1/4   40   12      near M81 UMa
NGC 3109      10 03.1  -26 10  137.9 -45.1  SBm   10.39   19   1/4   25    4.1    CP       Hya
NGC 3077      10 03.4  +68 44   41.8  +0.8  Irr   10.61    5   3/4   15   12      P        UMa
NGC 3115      10 05.2  -07 43  112.4 -42.9  S0     9.87    7  edge   70   33      PNG      Sex
Leo I         10 08.5  +12 18   88.9 -34.6  Irr   11.18   10  full    5    0.82   P        Leo
NGC 3169      10 14.2  +03 28   99.5 -37.1  Sa    11.08    4   1/2   85   65      V        Sex
NGC 3184      10 18.3  +41 25   63.7 -16.1  Sc    10.36    7  full  100   47      C        UMa
NGC 3198      10 19.9  +45 33   60.6 -13.2  SBc   10.87    9   1/2  115   47      C        UMa
NGC 3227      10 23.5  +19 52   83.4 -27.6  Sa    11.10    5   3/4  100   65      V        Leo
IC  2574      10 28.4  +68 25   43.6  +2.3  SBm   10.80   13   1/2   45   12      P        UMa
NGC 3310      10 38.8  +53 30   56.1  -5.9  Sbc   11.15    3  full   55   60      V        UMa
NGC 3344      10 43.5  +24 55   81.2 -21.1  Sbc   10.45    7  full   40   20      V        LMi
NGC 3351 M95  10 44.0  +11 42   94.1 -27.1  SBb   10.53    7   3/4   70   33      C        Leo
NGC 3359      10 46.6  +63 13   48.9  +0.6  SBc   11.03    7   3/4  135   65      V        UMa
NGC 3368 M96  10 46.8  +11 49   94.3 -26.4  Sab   10.11    8   3/4   75   34      CNS      Leo
NGC 3379 M105 10 47.8  +12 35   93.6 -25.9  E     10.24    5  full   55   36      PNGS     Leo
NGC 3384      10 48.3  +12 38   93.6 -25.7  E     10.85    5   1/2   60   37      NS       Leo
NGC 3489      11 00.3  +13 54   93.7 -22.5  S0    11.12    4   1/2   40   39      S        Leo
NGC 3486      11 00.4  +28 59   79.4 -15.8  Sc    11.05    7  full   50   25      V        Leo
NGC 3521      11 05.8  -00 02  108.5 -26.2  Sbc    9.83   11   1/2   80   25      V        Leo
NGC 3556 M108 11 11.5  +55 40   57.0  -0.8  SBc   10.69    9   1/4  115   45      V        UMa
NGC 3585      11 13.3  -26 45  138.7 -29.4  E     10.88    5   3/4   90   65      S        Hya
NGC 3607      11 16.9  +18 03   91.3 -17.2  S0    10.82    5  full   95   65      V        Leo
NGC 3621      11 18.3  -32 49  145.6 -28.6  Scd   10.28   12   1/2   80   22      C        Hya
NGC 3623 M65  11 18.9  +13 06   96.4 -18.7  Sa    10.25   10   1/4   70   25      V        Leo
NGC 3627 M66  11 20.3  +12 59   96.6 -18.4  Sb     9.65    9   3/4   90   34      C        Leo
NGC 3628      11 20.3  +13 35   96.0 -18.2  Sb    10.28   15  edge  110   25      V        Leo
NGC 3631      11 21.0  +53 10   59.8  -0.8  Sc    11.01    5  full  100   70      V        UMa
NGC 3675      11 26.1  +43 35   68.7  -4.4  Sb    11.00    6   1/2   70   40      V        UMa
NGC 3726      11 33.3  +47 02   66.2  -1.8  Sc    10.91    6   3/4  100   55      V        UMa
NGC 3893      11 48.7  +48 43   65.7  +1.3  Sc    11.16    4  full   70   55      V        UMa
NGC 3923      11 51.0  -28 48  141.8 -21.3  E     10.80    6  full  130   75      S        Hya
NGC 3938      11 52.8  +44 07   70.2  +0.2  Sc    10.90    5  full   85   55      V        UMa
NGC 3953      11 53.8  +52 20   62.6  +3.4  SBbc  10.84    7   1/2  110   55      V        UMa
NGC 3992 M109 11 57.6  +53 23   61.9  +4.3  SBbc  10.60    8   3/4  120   55      V        UMa
NGC 4051      12 03.2  +44 32   70.5  +2.1  Sbc   10.83    5   3/4   85   55      V        UMa
NGC 4088      12 05.6  +50 33   65.0  +4.5  Sbc   11.15    6   1/4   90   55      V        UMa
NGC 4125      12 08.1  +65 10   51.1  +9.4  E     10.65    6   3/4  130   78      S        Dra
NGC 4192 M98  12 13.8  +14 54   99.3  -5.6  Sab   10.95   10   1/4  155   55      V        Com
NGC 4214      12 15.7  +36 20   79.0  +1.6  Irr   10.24    9  full   30   13      P        CVn
NGC 4216      12 15.9  +13 09  101.1  -5.6  Sb    10.99    8   1/4  130   55      V        Vir
NGC 4236      12 16.7  +69 28   47.1  +1.4  SBd   10.05   22   1/2   70   11      P        Dra
NGC 4244      12 17.5  +37 48   77.7  +2.4  Sc    10.88   17  edge   70   15      P        CVn
NGC 4254 M99  12 18.8  +14 25  100.1  -4.5  Sc    10.44    5  full   85   55      V        Com
NGC 4258 M106 12 19.0  +47 18   68.7  +5.6  Sbc    9.10   19   1/2  130   24      S        CVn
NGC 4278      12 20.1  +29 17   86.0  +0.3  E     11.09    4  full   50   41      NGS      Com
NGC 4303 M61  12 21.9  +04 28  109.9  -6.7  SBbc  10.18    6  full   95   50      V        Vir
NGC 4321 M100 12 22.9  +15 49   99.0  -3.2  Sbc   10.05    7  full  115   53      C        Com
NGC 4365      12 24.5  +07 19  107.3  -5.3  E     10.52    7  full  140   69      GS       Vir
NGC 4374 M84  12 25.1  +12 53  102.0  -3.5  E     10.09    6  full  105   57      NS       Vir
NGC 4382 M85  12 25.4  +18 11   96.9  -1.9  S0    10.00    7   3/4  110   53      NS       Com
NGC 4395      12 25.8  +33 33   82.3  +2.7  SBm   10.64   13  full   55   14      P        CVn
NGC 4406 M86  12 26.2  +12 57  102.0  -3.3  E      9.83    9  full  150   57      NS       Vir
NGC 4414      12 26.5  +31 13   84.6  +2.2  Sc    10.96    4   3/4   65   62      C        Com
NGC 4429      12 27.4  +11 06  103.9  -3.5  S0    11.02    6   1/2   90   55      V        Vir
NGC 4438      12 27.8  +13 01  102.1  -2.9  Sa    11.02    9   1/4  135   55      V        Vir
NGC 4449      12 28.2  +44 06   72.3  +6.2  Irr    9.99    6   3/4   15   12      P        CVn
NGC 4450      12 28.5  +17 05   98.2  -1.5  Sab   10.90    5   3/4   85   55      V        Com
NGC 4472 M49  12 29.8  +07 60  107.0  -3.8  E      9.37   10  full  160   53      NGS      Vir
NGC 4473      12 29.8  +13 26  101.8  -2.3  E     11.16    4   1/2   70   54      S        Com
NGC 4490      12 30.6  +41 38   74.8  +5.9  SBcd  10.22    6   3/4   45   25      V        CVn
NGC 4486 M87  12 30.8  +12 23  102.9  -2.3  E      9.59    8  full  125   51      NGS      Vir
NGC 4494      12 31.4  +25 46   90.1  +1.6  E     10.71    5  full   65   47      NGS      Com
NGC 4501 M88  12 32.0  +14 25  101.0  -1.5  Sb    10.36    7   1/2  110   55      V        Com
NGC 4517      12 32.8  +00 07  114.8  -5.3  Scd   11.10   10  edge   90   30      V        Vir
NGC 4526      12 34.0  +07 42  107.6  -2.9  S0    10.66    7   1/4  115   55      S        Vir
NGC 4535      12 34.3  +08 12  107.2  -2.7  Sc    10.59    7   3/4  105   52      C        Vir
NGC 4536      12 34.4  +02 11  112.9  -4.3  Sbc   11.16    8   1/2  115   51      C        Vir
NGC 4548 M91  12 35.4  +14 30  101.2  -0.7  SBb   10.96    5  full   85   53      CS       Com
NGC 4552 M89  12 35.7  +12 33  103.1  -1.2  E     10.73    5  full   80   52      S        Vir
NGC 4559      12 36.0  +27 58   88.3  +3.2  Sc    10.46   11   1/2   95   30      V        Com
NGC 4565      12 36.3  +25 59   90.2  +2.8  Sb    10.42   16  edge  205   44      NGS      Com
NGC 4569 M90  12 36.8  +13 10  102.6  -0.7  Sab   10.26   10   1/2  155   55      V        Vir
NGC 4579 M58  12 37.7  +11 49  103.9  -0.9  Sb    10.48    6   3/4   95   55      V        Vir
NGC 4594 M104 12 40.0  -11 37  126.7  -6.7  Sa     8.98    9  edge   75   30      NS       Vir
NGC 4605      12 40.0  +61 37   55.5 +12.0  SBc   10.89    6   1/4   30   17      P        UMa
NGC 4618      12 41.6  +41 09   75.8  +7.8  SBd   11.22    4   3/4   30   25      V        CVn
NGC 4621 M59  12 42.0  +11 39  104.4  +0.1  E     10.57    5   3/4   80   52      S        Vir
NGC 4631      12 42.1  +32 32   84.2  +5.7  SBcd   9.75   15  edge  115   25      V        CVn
NGC 4636      12 42.8  +02 41  113.0  -2.2  E     10.43    6  full   85   49      S        Vir
NGC 4649 M60  12 43.7  +11 33  104.6  +0.4  E      9.81    7  full  115   54      NGS      Vir
NGC 4654      12 43.9  +13 08  103.1  +0.9  Sc    11.10    5   3/4   80   55      V        Vir
NGC 4656      12 44.0  +32 10   84.7  +6.0  SBm   10.96   15  edge  110   25      V        CVn
NGC 4665      12 45.1  +03 03  112.8  -1.5  SBa   10.50    4  full   65   60      V        Vir
NGC 4697      12 48.6  -05 48  121.6  -3.1  E     10.14    7   3/4   80   38      S        Vir
NGC 4699      12 49.0  -08 40  124.4  -3.8  Sb    10.41    4   3/4   95   85      V        Vir
NGC 4725      12 50.4  +25 30   91.5  +5.7  SBab  10.11   11   3/4  130   42      CS       Com
NGC 4736 M94  12 50.9  +41 07   76.2  +9.5  Sab    8.99   11  full   70   17      S        CVn
NGC 4753      12 52.4  -01 12  117.4  -1.0  Irr   10.85    6   3/4  135   77      S        Vir
NGC 4762      12 52.9  +11 14  105.5  +2.5  S0    11.12    9  edge  140   55      V        Vir
NGC 4826 M64  12 56.7  +21 41   95.6  +6.1  Sab    9.36   10   3/4   45   24      S        Com
NGC 4945      13 05.4  -49 28  165.2 -10.2  SBc    9.30   20   1/4  100   15      V        Cen
NGC 4976      13 08.6  -49 30  165.3  -9.7  E     11.04    6   3/4  100   60      V        Cen
NGC 5005      13 10.9  +37 03   81.1 +12.5  Sbc   10.61    6   1/2  115   70      V        CVn
NGC 5033      13 13.5  +36 36   81.6 +12.9  Sc    10.75   11   1/2  185   60      V        CVn
NGC 5055 M63  13 15.8  +42 02   76.2 +14.3  Sbc    9.31   13   3/4   90   25      V        CVn
NGC 5068      13 18.9  -21 02  138.3  -0.2  SBc   10.70    7  full   40   20      V        Vir
NGC 5102      13 22.0  -36 38  153.4  -4.1  S0    10.35    9   1/2   30   12      NS       Cen
NGC 5128      13 25.5  -43 01  159.8  -5.3  S0     7.84   26  edge   90   12      PNS      Cen
NGC 5194 M51  13 29.9  +47 12   71.2 +17.3  Sbc    8.96   11  full   85   26      NS       CVn
NGC 5195      13 30.0  +47 16   71.1 +17.4  Irr   10.45    6  full   45   26      near M51 CVn
NGC 5236 M83  13 37.0  -29 52  147.9  +1.0  Sc     8.20   13  full   55   15      CP       Hya
NGC 5248      13 37.5  +08 53  110.6 +12.6  Sbc   10.97    6   3/4  135   75      V        Boo
NGC 5247      13 38.1  -17 53  136.6  +5.1  Sbc   10.50    6  full  115   70      V        Vir
NGC 5253      13 39.9  -31 39  149.8  +1.0  Irr   10.87    5   1/2   15   12      CN       Cen
NGC 5322      13 49.3  +60 11   57.5 +20.3  E     11.14    6   3/4  175  102      S        UMa
NGC 5363      13 56.1  +05 15  115.4 +16.1  Irr   11.05    4   3/4  100   85      V        Vir
NGC 5364      13 56.2  +05 01  115.7 +16.1  Sbc   11.17    7   3/4  165   85      V        Vir
NGC 5457 M101 14 03.2  +54 21   63.6 +22.6  Sc     8.31   29  full  200   24      CN       UMa
NGC 5585      14 19.8  +56 44   60.7 +24.7  Scd   11.20    6   3/4   45   28      P        UMa
NGC 5643      14 32.7  -44 10  165.4  +5.6  Sc    10.74    5  full   75   55      V        Lup
NGC 5846      15 06.5  +01 36  124.6 +32.0  E     11.05    4  full  100   84      GS       Vir
NGC 5866      15 06.5  +55 46   60.0 +31.2  S0    10.74    5  edge   70   50      S        Dra
NGC 5907      15 15.9  +56 20   58.8 +32.2  Sc    11.12   13  edge  185   50      V        Dra
NGC 6221      16 52.8  -59 13  191.1 +11.1  SBc   10.66    4   3/4   65   65      V        Ara
NGC 6300      17 17.0  -62 49  195.4  +9.2  SBb   10.98    4   3/4   60   45      V        Ara
NGC 6384      17 32.4  +07 04  137.3 +68.0  SBbc  11.14    6   3/4  150   85      V        Oph
NGC 6503      17 49.5  +70 09   33.1 +34.6  Sc    10.91    7   1/4   35   17      P        Dra
NGC 6744      19 09.8  -63 51  208.1 +10.4  SBbc   9.14   20   3/4  205   35      V        Pav
NGC 6822      19 45.0  -14 48  229.1 +57.1  Irr    9.31   15   3/4    5    1.6    CP       Sag
NGC 6946      20 34.9  +60 09   10.0 +42.0  Sc     9.61   11  full   65   20      P        Cep
IC  5052      20 52.1  -69 12  216.5  +2.6  SBcd  11.16    6  edge   35   20      V        Pav
NGC 7217      22 07.9  +31 22  325.0 +43.5  Sab   11.02    4  full   55   50      V        Peg
NGC 7213      22 09.3  -47 10  238.1 +13.6  Sa    11.01    3  full   65   70      V        Gru
NGC 7331      22 37.1  +34 25  328.0 +37.1  Sb    10.35   10   1/2  145   48      CS       Peg
IC  1459      22 57.2  -36 28  252.3 +12.7  E     10.97    5  full  145   95      S        Gru
NGC 7424      22 57.3  -41 04  248.3 +10.3  SBc   10.96   10  full  110   40      V        Gru
NGC 7793      23 57.8  -32 35  261.3  +3.1  Scd    9.63    9   3/4   35   13      P        Scl

Columna 1: Nom(s) estÓndard de catÓleg de la galÓxia.
Columna 2: Ascensiˇ Recta de la galÓxia Ŕpoca 2000.
Columna 3: Declinaciˇ de la galÓxia Ŕpoca 2000.
Columna 4: Longitud supergalÓctica.
Columna 5: Latitud supergalÓctica.
Columna 6: Tipus de la galÓxia.  E=ElĚlÝptica; S0=Lenticular; Sa,Sb,Sc,Sd=Espiral;
          SBa,SBb,SBc,SBd=Espiral barrada; Sm,SBm,Irr=Irregular.
Columna 7: Magnitud blava aparent de la galÓxia.
Columna 8: DiÓmetre angular de la galÓxia en minuts d'arc.
Columna 9: Orientaciˇ de la galÓxia vista al cel.  100%=la galÓxia es veu de cara;
          3/4=la galÓxia es veu lleugerament inclinada; 1/2=la galÓxia estÓ inclinada 45║;
          1/4=la galÓxia es veu quasi be de perfil; perfil=la galÓxia es veu de perfil.
Columna 10: DiÓmetre de la galÓxia en milers d'anys-llum calculat utilitzant el
            diÓmetre angular i la distÓncia.
Columna 11: DistÓncia de la galÓxia en milions d'anys-llum.
Columna 12: MŔtode usat per a calcular la distÓncia: C=cefeida, P=fotomŔtric,
            N=en funciˇ de la lluminositat d'una nebulosa planetÓria, G=en funciˇ de la lluminositat d'un c˙mul globular,
            S=fluctuacions de la lluminositat superficial, V=estimada a partir de la velocitat de recessiˇ de la galÓxia.
Columna 13: ConstelĚlaciˇ on estÓ la galÓxia.

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de Vaucouleurs G, de Vaucouleurs A, Corwin H, Buta R, Paturel G, Fouque P, (1991), Third
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Van de Steene G, Jacoby G, Praet C, Ciardullo R, Dejonghe H, (2004), The PNLF distance to the
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       Milky Way".
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       Distance to NGC 5236 (M83) with the ESO Very Large Telescope, Astrophys J, 590, 256.
Karachentsev I, Grebel E, Sharina M, Dolphin A, Geisler D, Guhathakurta P, Hodge P,
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       in Sculptor, Astron Astrophys, 404, 93.
MÚndez B, Davis M, Moustakas J, Newman J, Madore B, Freedman W, (2002), Deviations from
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       Astron J, 124, 213.
Tonry J, Dressler A, Blakeslee J, Ajhar E, Fletcher A, Luppino G, Metzger M, Moore C, (2001),
       The SBF Survey of Galaxy Distances. IV. SBF Magnitudes, Colors, and Distances.
       Astrophys J 546, 681.
Ferrarese L, et al, (2000), The HST Key Project on the Extragalactic Distance Scale. XXVI.
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       Hubble Constant.  Astrophys J 529, 745.
Drozdovsky I, Karachentsev I, (2000), Photometric distances to six bright resolved galaxies.
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Tully R, (1988), Nearby Galaxies Catalogue.

Com mesurar distÓncies a galÓxies al Superc˙mul de Virgo

Cepheid Distances
The oldest and most famous distance method first used by Edwin Hubble in 1922 to determine the distance to the Andromeda Galaxy. The method uses Cepheid variable stars - yellow giant stars which pulsate. The luminosity of these stars is directly proportional to the pulsation periods (typically a few days). By measuring their periods in other galaxies we can determine how bright and thus how far way they are. This method is usually used on spiral and irregular galaxies which have large numbers of Cepheids. It is very accurate but requires very powerful telescopes and is time consuming.
Photometric Distances
This is an umbrella term for several related techniques. At its simplest this method involves looking for the brightest supergiant stars in a galaxy and assuming that they have a standard luminosity. More sophisticated techniques such as the "Tip of the Red Giant Branch" (TRGB) method and the "Red Clump" method look for red giant stars at particular extreme states in their lifespan when they have the same general luminosity.
Planetary Nebula Luminosity Function (PNLF)
The very brightest planetary nebulae have the same luminosity. By observing planetary nebulae in other galaxies we can determine their relative distances simply by measuring how bright the brightest planetary nebulae are. Planetary nebulae are easy to see in other galaxies because they emit light in very specific wavebands and therefore can be observed with filters centred on these wavebands. Ironically, nobody knows of a good method for determining the distances to dimmer planetary nebulae in our own galaxy.
Globular Cluster Luminosity Function (GCLF)
The average luminosity of globular clusters around galaxies tends to be very similar. By observing large numbers of globular clusters around other galaxies we can determine their average luminosity and hence the distance. This method works best on elliptical galaxies because the globular clusters can be easily detected against the smooth background of an elliptical galaxy.
Surface Brightness Fluctuations (SBF)
The further away a galaxy is, the smoother it looks on a photograph. A galaxy twice as far looks twice as smooth. This can be used to accurately measure the distance to the galaxy, although you need to subtract the contribution from the globular clusters around the galaxy which make a galaxy look less smooth. Large numbers of distances to other galaxies are being produced by this technique although it works best on elliptical and lenticular galaxies or on spiral galaxies with broad smooth central bulges.
The Galaxy's Recessional Velocity
By far the simplest technique for determining a galaxy's distance is to measure its velocity. In a uniformly expanding universe a galaxy with a larger velocity lies further from an observer than one with a smaller velocity. It is very easy to measure a galaxy's velocity with a spectroscope - hundreds of thousands of galaxy velocities have been measured. Unfortunately galaxies also have a smaller random motion which always means the estimated distance will be uncertain by several million light years. Noone cares if a galaxy 1 billion light years away is uncertain in its distance by ten million light years, but it obviously matters if the galaxy is only ten million light years away. For galaxies in the Virgo supercluster a correction needs to be added to a galaxy's velocity because of the pull of the Virgo cluster which is dragging galaxies towards it.
Digitized Sky Survey Image
NGC7331 - A large spiral galaxy 48 million light years away.
The local supercluster Tornar a la plana del Superc˙mul Virgo